Research Project: Planetary and Cometary Atmospheres Top
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Planetary Atmospheres
Division of Planetary Sciences Division
The Working Group
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The Working Group


Dr. S. A. Haider
Dr. Varun Sheel
Dr. K. Durga Prasad
Dr. Jayesh Pabari
Ms. Siddhi Y. Shah
Mr. Masoom Jethwa
Mr. Bhavin M. Pandya




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Dr. S. A. Haider
Senior Professor

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Address (O):
Planetary Science Division (Thaltej)
Physical Research Laboratory
Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380 009
email: haider @ prl.res.in
tel. no. +91-79-2631 4555/4950


Address (R):
Bungalow 9, Unique Park Society
B/H F.D. High School
Sarkhej Road, Ahmedabad - 380 055
Tel. No. 9662327992



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Dr. Varun Sheel
Professor
Address (O):
Planetary Science Division (Thaltej)
Physical Research Laboratory
Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380 009
email: varun @ prl.res.in
tel. no. +91-79-2631 4412



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Dr. K. Durga Prasad
Reader
Address (O):
Planetary Science Division (Thaltej)
Physical Research Laboratory
Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380 009
email: dpkarnam@prl.res.in
tel. no. +91-79-2631 4913



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Dr. Jayesh Pabari
Engineer -SF
Address (O):
Planetary Science Division (Thaltej)
Physical Research Laboratory
Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380 009
email: jayesh@prl.res.in
tel. no. +91-79-2631 4519
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Ms. Siddhi Y. Shah
Ph. D Student

Address (O):
Planetary Science Division (Thaltej)
Physical Research Laboratory
Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380 009
email: siddhi@prl.res.in
tel. no. +91-79-2631 4520




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Mr. Masoom Jethwa
Ph. D Student

Address (O):
Planetary Science Division (Thaltej)
Physical Research Laboratory
Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380 009
email: masoom@prl.res.in
tel. no. +91-79-2631 4520



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Dr. Bhavin Pandya
Visitor
Address (O)

Physics Departement,
C U Shah Science College
Ahmedabad, India

Address (Visitor):
Planetary Science Division (Thaltej)
Physical Research Laboratory
Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380 009
email:
tel. no. +91-79-2631 4520



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Thrust Areas of Research

Very little attention has been paid to atmospheric studies on planets, comets and moon in India. We have been always involved in modeling of these studies. This has yielded some important scientific results on Mars. In brief, these results are discussed in five phases as given below :

Meteor Ablation in the Martian Inosphere
Daytime Stratification of Martian Ionosphere
Effects of Solar X-ray Flares on Mars’ Ionosphere
Dynamics of Low Latitude Ionosphere of Mars
Response of Dust storm in the lower ionosphere of Mars
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Scientific Contributions

Phase 1- Meteor Ablation in the Martian Ionosphere

Space missions Mars 4/5, Viking 1/2, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Express (MEX) have provided insufficient data in the Martian atmosphere. Based on a rigorous analysis and modeling of these data we have suggested three mechanisms for variation of ionization at different altitudes involving meteoroid ablation, precipitation of solar wind electron and proton from dayside to nightside atmosphere along the interplanetary magnetic field lines near the terminator (Figure 1). The novelty of the model developed by us is the use of 57 chemical reactions, three sources of ionizations (solar wind electrons, protons and meteoroids) for the calculation of production rates, ion and electron density, which successfully explains complete electron density profiles of the measurements. The first and second peaks have been obtained at about 160 km and 120 km due to transportation of electron and proton respectively from dayside to nightside across the terminator. We have found that third peak is sporadic which occurred sometimes at altitude ranges 80-100 km due to meteor ablations. We were first to produce three plasma layers simultaneously in the nighttime ionosphere due to impact of meteoroids, solar wind proton and electron, respectively (ref. 13 & 14).

Figure 1. Calculated ion production rates of CO2+,N2+,and O+(first three top legends) due to solar wind electron impact ionization, H+-H due to impact ionization (middle three legends),and Mg+,Fe+,and Si+ due to meteor ablation (lowest three legends) in the nightime ionosphere of Mars(from J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1-9,2013).

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Phase 2- Daytime Stratification of Martian Ionosphere

We have extended above model for the estimation of electron density profiles in the dayside ionosphere of Mars. The daytime model produces three plasma layers simultaneously due to impact of meteoroids, solar X-ray (0.5-9nm) and EUV (9-102.6 nm) radiations at altitude range 75-85 km, 110-115 km and 135-140 km respectively (Figure 2). Based on these model results we proposed that all atmospheric ions (CO2+, N2+, O+, CO+, O2+ and NO+) are produced above 100 km due to solar EUV/X-ray radiation. The metallic ions are formed in the middle ionosphere (50-100 km) due to ablation of micrometeoroids. These calculations were carried out for two specific days of measurements made by MEX and MGS on 18 April, 2004 and 11 May, 2005, when comets P/2003 WC7 (LINEAR Catalina) and 10P/Tempel 2 intersected the orbit of Mars respectively. The model results are compared with these observations. It is found that the middle ionosphere of Mars strongly depends on incoming mass and flux of the meteoroids. The solar EUV energy is deposited within smaller altitude range (~125-145 km) in the upper ionosphere of Mars as compared to the corresponding altitude range (~200-250 km) in the upper ionosphere of Earth. Thus the height of the major peak produced by solar EUV is lower by a factor of ~2 in the Martian ionosphere as compared to that observed in the ionosphere of Earth. X-ray energy created a plasma layer at nearly the same heights (~100-115 km) in the ionospheres of both planets but the layer thickness is considerably less on Mars than on Earth (ref. 13 & 25).

Figure 2. The production rates for metals and ions are estimated in the Martian ionosphere on 18 April 2004 at SZA 85°, CO2+,O+,and N2+(first three top legends) due to solar EUV impact ionization, CO2+,O+,and N2+(middle three legends) due to X-ray impact ionization and Mg, Fe, Si, Mg+,Fe+,and Si+(lowest six legends) due to meteor ablation for incident meteoroid flux 4.0 × 10-15 cm-2s-1 of mass 4.5 × 10-7g. (from J. Geophys. Res., 9228-9245,2014)
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Phase 3- Effects of Solar X-ray Flares on Mars Ionosphere

The E layer is produced in the dayside ionosphere of Mars at altitude range 100-115 km due to X-ray impact ionization. Several solar flares occurred during the lifetime of MGS. Responses of these flares in the E region ionosphere of Mars have been reported by several investigators. The modeling of flare induced production rate and electron density are not carried out in the Martian ionosphere. We modeled solar X-ray fluxes measured aboard GOES 12 during the periods 29 May to 3 June 2003, 15-20 January 2005 and 12-18 May 2005 and investigated the effects on ion production rates and electron densities produced by individual X-ray flares that occurred within these intervals. Later Total Electron Content (TEC) was estimated for each case in the E region ionosphere of Mars using the modeled solar X-ray spectra. The calculated TEC values were then compared with the measured TEC obtained from E region electron density profiles of MGS.

A 3D kinetic, solar wind model, HAFv2 was also used to predict interplanetary shock arrivals at Mars during the May 2005 event. This model confirmed that high ram pressure shock waves associated with propagating CME events reached the Martian ionosphere after 1-2 days of the eruptions of X-ray flare (Figure 3). We have found a large increase (by a factor of ~2-5) in TEC due to solar X-ray flares and Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) on the Martian ionosphere. This study provided a detailed understanding of Martian auroral X-ray phenomena and has substantive implications for the coupling of solar wind with the ionosphere of Mars. In this study we have provided a new mechanism for the generation of magnetic storms on Mars (ref. 9, 10 & 16)

Figure 3. Ecliptic plane simulations out to 2 AU of IMF and solar wind disturbances predicted by the HAFv.2 model during 15–18 May 2005 at selected time: (a) 15 May at 0:00 UT, (b) 15 May at 8:00 UT, (c) 15 May at 16:00 UT, (d) 16 May at 0:00 UT, (e) 16 May at 12:00 UT, (f) 17 May at 0:00 UT, (g) 17 May at 16:00 UT and (h) 18 May at 0:00 UT. IMF lines are shown in red (away sectors) and in blue (toward sectors). The locations of the Earth and Mars are indicated by black dots. (from J. Geophys. Res., 117, A05326, 2012).
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Phase 4- Dynamics of Low Latitude Ionosphere of Mars

We have carried out the first extensive theoretical study of low latitude ionosphere of Mars. In this study we have demonstrated that photoelectron transport was a key determinant for an order of magnitude reduction in the ion/electron density at high altitudes. Using a detailed computational study of the transport processes, we suggested that the physics of low latitude Martian ionosphere of Mars is substantively different from the mid and high latitude ionospheres. This theoretical prediction awaits experimental validation and in the absence of ionospheric measurements at low latitude of Mars, these results now serve as benchmark values that guide the design of future ionospheric payloads. This study opens up a new realm of research to measure and confirm the effects of photoelectron transport on the dynamics of Martian ionosphere, (Ref.22, 28).

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Phase 5- Response of Dust storm in the lower ionosphere of Mars

Understanding of the lower ionosphere of Mars is limited due to lack of observations in this region. We have developed a coupled chemistry and energy loss model to study the ion production/loss rates, densities of positive and negative ions in the lower ionosphere of Mars. In this model 12 neutral species (CO2, N2, Ar, O2, H2, CO, H2O, O, O2, NO, NO2 and HNO2) were used. Galactic cosmic rays are the major source in the lower ionosphere of Mars. Initially this source ionizes the neutral species, creating positive ions. These ions then interact with 100 chemical reactions incorporated in this model. This model suggests that water cluster ions H+(H2O)n(n=1- 4) are the most dominant at about 25 km. Amongst the negative ions electrons play an important role above 40 km, while below this height CO3-(H2O)n and NO2-(H2O)n are dominant ions (Ref. 8 & 15)

Recently we have included dust aerosols in this model to study the effects of dust storms in the Martian atmosphere. The densities of positive and negative ions in presence and absence of dust storms were estimated. It is found that concentrations of water cluster ions H+(H2O)n , NO2O-(H2O)n and CO3-(H2O)n were reduced by 2 orders of magnitude in presence of dust aerosols (Figure 4A & B). These results suggested that during the massive dust storms lower ionosphere of Mars is significantly perturbed and a large hole in the ion concentrations may appear until this anomalous condition returns to the normal condition after a period of about a few days (Ref. 27)

During dust storms heavy aerosol particles may absorb light ions, which are moving in the atmosphere. This process can produce a large electric field in the Martian atmosphere during a storm period. The possible occurrence of large E fields and associated electric discharges has a potentially important implication for Martian atmospheric chemistry, human exploration, habitability and even the possible development of life.

Figure 4A. Altitude profiles of positive ion densities calculated by the model for two cases of positive ions: (a) without dust aerosol and (b) with dust aerosol. (from J. Geophys. Res., 115, A12336, 2010)
Figure 4B. Altitude profiles of negative ion densities calculated by the model for two cases of negative ions: (a) without dust aerosol and (b) with dust aerosol. (from J. Geophys. Res., 117, A12336, 2010)




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Future Directions

Modeling of Earth's Magnetosphere and other Magnetic Planets
Dynamics of Thermospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars


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Modeling of Earth's Magnetosphere and other Magnetic Planets


Theoretical aspects on the interaction of solar wind with earth and other planets will be studied in detail under this programme. This study is possible by developing three dimensional magnetodydrodynamic model which can explain obstacle, shapes, sizes and extension of the tail which are generated by the strength and direction of the solar wind approaching the planets and interacting them.



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Dynamics of Thermospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars

The long term objective is to compare physical and chemical processes responsible for the dynamical structures of the thermospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars. The atmospheres of these planets are driven by similar forcing agents and subsequently change over time both naturally and in the case of earth as a result of human influence.



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Methods & Techniques


Analytical Yield Spectrum
One and Two dimensional Continuity and Momentum Equations
Three Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Approach
Kinetic Model


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Analytical Yield Spectrum

This approach is based on Monte Carlo method. In this method mono energetic electron of different incident energies are introduced in a gas medium. The energy of secondary or tertiary electrons and their positions were calculated at time when primary electrons ionize the atmospheric constituents. In this way, yield spectrum function was generated for the calculation of the yield of any state in the mixture of gases. The function was fitted analytically later. This approach has been found very useful for low and medium energy loss processes in planetary ionospheres.


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One and Two dimensional Continuity and Momentum Equations

These models are developed in the laboratory using finite difference method and are being used in many problems of planetary atmospheres.


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Three Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Approach

The computer modelling of solar wind interaction with planetary magnetospheres and its assoscaited current system is now current interests of scientists throughout the globe. This study has been started by developing three dimensional MHD model which can explain obstacle, shapes, sizes and extension of the tail which are generated by strength and direction of the solar wind approaching the planet and interacting with them.


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Kinetic Model

A kinetic model for polar ion exosphere of magnetic planets is developed in the laboratory to calculate escape flux and density of ions and electrons through the plasma sheet at different exospheric electron temperatures along the magnetic field lines originating from the baropause at high altitude.


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Publications


Journals
Conferences/Publications/Proceedings
Popular Articles on Planetary Sciences
Books
Scientific Reports
Book Chapters



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Publication in Journals

1. Modeling of diffuse aurora due to precipitation of H+ - H and SEP electron in the nightside atmosphere of Mars: Monte Carlo simulation and MAVEN observations
S. A. Haider, J. Masoom (2019), J. Geophys. Res., (in press)

2. Enhanced ionization in magnetic anomaly regions of the Martian lower ionosphere associated with dust storms
N. Venkateswara Rao, V. Leelavathi, P. Mohanamansa, S. A. Haider and S. V. B. Rao (2019), J. Geophys. Res., 124, 3007-3020

3. Schumann resonance frequency and conductivity in the nighttime ionosphere of Mars: A source for lightning
S. A. Haider, Jayesh P. Pabari, J. Masoom, Siddhi Y. Shah (2019), Adv. Space Res., 63, 2260-2266

4. Effect of dust storm and GCR impact on the production rate of O3+ in MY28 and MY29: Modeling and SPICAM observation
S. A. Haider, Siddhi Y. Shah, J. Masoom and S. Bougher (2019), J. Geophys. Res., 124, 2271-2282

5. Characteristics of solar X-ray flares and their effects on the ionosphere and human exploration to Mars: MGS radio science observations
Thirupathaiah, P., Siddhi Y. Shah, and S.A. Haider (2019), Icarus, 330, 60-74

6. Response of dust storm to radiative transfer modeling for infrared thermal emission on Mars: PFS/MEX observation
Masoom P. Jethwa, S.A. Haider, and Macro Giuranna (2019), Ind. J. Radio & Space Phys. (in press)

7. Orbital altitude dust at Mars, its implication and a prototype for its detection
J.P.Pabari, S.A.Haider, B.M.Pandya, R.K.Singh, A.Kumar, D.K.Patel, A.Bogavelly (2018), Planetary and Space Science, 161, 68-75

8. Long-term variability of dust optical depths on Mars during MY24–MY32 and their impact on subtropical lower ionosphere: Climatology, modeling, and observations
Varun Sheel and S. A. Haider (2016), J. Geophys. Res., 121, 8038-8054, doi: 10.1002/2015JA022300

9. Flare X-ray photochemistry of the E region ionosphere of Mars
S. A. Haider, I. S. Batista, M. A. Abdu, A. M. Santos, Siddhi Y. Shah, and P. Thirupathaiah (2016), J. Geophys. Res., 121, 6870-6888, doi: 10.1002/jgra.52737

10. Dust storm and electron density in the equatorial D region ionosphere of Mars: Comparison with Earth’s ionosphere from rocket measurements in Brazil
S.A. Haider, I.S. Batista, M.A.Abdu, P. Muralikrishna, Siddhi Y. Shah and T. Kuroda (2015), J. Geophys. Res.120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021630

11. Probing of meteor showers at Mars during the encounter of Comet C/2013 A1: Predictions for the arrival of MAVEN/Mangalyaan
S.A. Haider and B.M. Pandya (2015), Geoscience Lett., 2-8, Doi:10.1186/s40562-015-0023-2

12. Lower and upper ionosphere of Mars
S.A. Haider and K.K. Mahajan (2014), Space Sci. Rev.,Doi: 10.1007/s11214-014-0058-2

13. Numerical simulation of the effects of meteoroid ablation and solar EUV/X-ray radiation in the dayside ionosphere of Mars: MGS/MEX observations
Pandya, B.M. and S.A. Haider (2014), J.Geophys.Res.,119, 9228-9245, Doi: 0.102/2014JA020063

14. Nighttime ionosphere caused by meteoroid ablation and solar wind electron-proton hydrogen impact on Mars: MEX observation and modeling
Haider, S. A., B.M. Pandya and G.J. Molina-Cuberos (2013), J.Geophys. Res., 118,1-9, doi:10.1002/jgra.50590

15. Numerical simulation of the effects of a solar energetic particle event on the ionosphere of Mars
Sheel Varun, S.A. Haider, Paul Withers, K. Kozarev, I. Jun, S. Kang, G. Gronoff and C. Wedlund Simon. (2012),J. Geophys. Res., 117, A0312, doi:10.1029/2011 JA017455

16. Effects of solar X-ray flares in the E region ionosphere of Mars: First model results
S.A. Haider, S.M.P. Mckenna-Lawlor, C.D. Fry, Rajmal Jain and K.N. Joshipura (2012), J. Geophys. Res. 117, A05326, doi:10.1029/2011JA017436

17. Role of X-ray flares and CME in the E region ionosphere of Mars: MGS observations
S.A. Haider (2012), , Planet. Space Sci., 63, 56-61

18. Calculated production and loss rates of ions due to impact of galactic cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere of Mars
Varun Sheel and S.A. Haider (2012), Planet. Space Sci., 63, 94 - 104.

19. Meteor impact perturbation in the lower ionosphere of Mars: MGS observations
Pandya, B.M. and S.A. Haider (2012),Planet. Space Sci., 63,105-109.

20. Mars Ionosphere: A Review of Experimental Results and Modeling Studies
S.A. Haider, K.K. Mahajan and Esa Kallio (2011), Rev. of Geophys., 49, RG4001, doi:10.1029 /2011RG000357

21. Effect of dust storms on the D region of the Martian ionosphere: Atmospheric electricity
S.A. Haider, V. Sheel, M.D. Smith, W.C. Maguire and G.J. Molina-Cuberos (2010), J. Geophys. Res., 115, A12336, doi:10.1029/2010 JA016125

22. Modeling photoelectron transport in the Martian ionosphere at Olympus Mons and Syrtis Major: MGS observations
S.A. Haider, S.P. Seth, D.A. Brain, D.L. Mitchell, T. Majeed and S.W. Bougher (2010),J. Geophys. Res., 115, A08310, doi:10.1029/2009JA014968

23. On the responses to solar X-ray flare and coronal mass ejection in the ionosphere of Mars and Earth
S.A. Haider, M.A. Abdu, I.S. Batista, J.H. Sobral, Esa Kallio,W.C. Maguire and M.I. Verigin (2009),Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L1310 doi:10.1029/2009 GL038694

24. Zonal wave structures in the nighttime density, Temperature and in the D region ionosphere over Mars: Modeling and observations
S.A. Haider, M.A.Abdu, I.S.Batista, J.H.Sobral, Varun Sheel, G.J. Molina-Cuberos, W.C.Maguire and M.I.Verigin (2009),J. Geophys. Res., 114, A12315, doi:10.1029/2009JA014231

25. D, E, and F layers in the daytime at high Latitude terminator ionosphere of Mars: Comparison with Earth's ionosphere using COSMIC data
S.A. Haider, M.A. Abdu, I.S. Batista, J.H. Sobral, Xiaoli Luan, Esa Kallio, W.C. Maguire, M.I. Verigin, and V. Singh (2009),J. Geophys. Res ., 114, A03311, doi:101029/2008JA013709

26. Model calculation of production rates, ion and electron densities in the Evening troposphere of Mars at latitudes 67oN and 62oS: Season variability
S.A. Haider, Varun Sheel, V. Singh, W.C. Maguire and G. J. Molina- Cuberos (2008), J. Geophys. Res.113, A08320, doi:10.1029/2007JA012980

27. Calculated densities of H3O+(H2O)n, NO2-(H2O)n, CO3-(H2O)n and electron in the nighttime ionosphere of Mars: Impact of solar wind electron and galactic cosmic rays
S.A. Haider, V. Singh, V.R. Choksi, W.C. Maguire and M.I. Verigin (2007),J.Geophys.Res, 112, A12309, doi:10.1029/2007JA012530

28. Model of photoelectron impact ionization within the high latitude ionosphere at Mars: Comparison of calculated and measured electron density
S.A. Haider, S.P. Seth, V.R. Choksi and K.I. Oyama (2006), Icarus, 185,102-112.

29. Estimation of peak electron density in upper ionosphere of Mars at high latitude (50o-70oN) using MGS ACC data
Seth, S.P., U.B. Jayanthi and S.A. Haider (2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19204, doi:10.1029 /2006GL027064

30. Mars Global Surveyor radio science electron density profiles: Some anomalous features in the Martian ionosphere
Mahajan, K.K., S. Singh, A. Kumar, S. Raghuvanshi and S.A. Haider (2007), J.Geophys.Res, 112, E10006, doi:10.1029/ 2006JE002876

31. Zonal variations of peak ionization rates in upper atmosphere of Mars at high latitude using Mars Global Surveyor accelerometer data
Seth, S.P., V.B. Rao, C.M. Esprito, S. A. Haider and V.R. Choksi (2006),J.Geophys.Res, 111, A09308, doi:10.1029/2006JA011753

32. Radial distribution of production rates, loss rates and densities corresponding to ion masses ≤ 40amu in the inner coma of comet Halley:Composition and chemistry
Haider, S. A. and Anil Bhardwaj (2005), Icarus, 177,196-216.

33. Solar EUV and electron-proton-hydrogen atom produced ionosphere at Mars: Comparative studies of particle fluxes and ion production rates due to different processes
S.A. Haider, S.P. Seth, Esa Kallio and K.I. Oyama, Icarus, 159, 18-30 (2002).

34. Calculated electron flux and densities at 10-1000 eV in the dayside Martian Ionosphere: Comparison with MGS and Viking results
S.A. Haider and K.I. Oyama, Indian J. Radio and Space Phy., 31, 173-182 (2202)

35. The photoelectron flux and night glow emissions of 5577 Å and 6300 Å due to solar wind electron precipitation in Martian atmosphere
S.P.Seth, S.A. Haider and K.I.Oyama, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1324 doi 10.1029/20015A 000261 (2002).

36. Field aligned current and parallel electric field between magnetosphere and ionosphere of Mars
S.A. Haider , S.P. Seth and K.S. Raina, Indian J. of Radio & Space Phys., 28, 36-48, (1999).

37. Chemistry of the dayside ionosphere of Mars
K.S. Raina and S.A. Haider, Indian J. of Radio & Space Phys., 27, 185-197 (1998).

38. Chemistry of the nightside ionosphere of Mars
S.A. Haider, J. Geophys. Res.,102, 407-416 (1997).

39. High latitude plasma transport through the Martian * tail : Polar wind
S.A. Haider, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 24955 (1996).

40. Production and emissions of atomic carbon and oxygen in the inner coma of comet Halley : Role of electron impact
A. Bhardwaj, S.A. Haider and R.P. Singhal, ICARUS, 120, 412-430 (1996).

41. O+ escape through the plasmasheet of Mars and its causative mechanism
S.A. Haider, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 12235-12242 (1995).

42. Comparative study of electron fluxes, ionization rates, ion and electron densities due to photoelectron and magnetospheric electron interaction with the atmosphere of Mars
S.A. Haider, Current Science, 66, 577-583 (1994).

43. Role of auoral and photoelectrons on the abundance of methane and ammonia in the coma of comet Halley
S.A. Haider, A. Bhardwaj and R.P. Singhal, ICARUS, 101, 234-243 (1993).

44. OI 630.0 nm Dayglow in the region of equatorial ionization anomaly: Temporal variability and its causative mechanism
R. Sridharan, S.A. Haider, S. Gurubaran, R. Sekar and R. Narayanan, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 13715-13721 (1992).

45. Calculated ionization rates, ion densities and airglow emission rates due to precipitating electrons in the nightside ionosphere of Mars
S.A. Haider, J. Kim, A.F. Nagy, C.N. Keller, M.I. Verigin, K.I. Gringauz, N.M. Shutte, K. Szego and P. Kiraly, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 10637-10641 (1992).

46. On the possible source of the ionization in the nighttime Martian ionosphere, 1, Phobos-2/HARP electron spectrometer measurements
M.I. Verigin, K.I. Gringauz, N.M. Shutte, S.A. Haider, K. Szego, P. Kiraly, A.F. Nagy and T.I. Gombosi, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 19307-19313 (1991).

47. Auroral and photoelectron fluxes in cometary ionospheres
A. Bhardwaj, S.A. Haider and R.P. Singhal, ICARUS, 85, 216 -226(1990).

48. Emission intensities of N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield and Birge-Hopfield bands in the dayside disk spectrum of Titan
S.A. Haider,Indian J. Radio and Space Physics, 26, 705-715 (1988).

49. Emission intensities of fourth positive bands of CO in the atmosphere of Mars due to solar EUV interaction
S.A. Haider, Indian J. Radio and Space Physics, 17, 27-38 (1988).

50. Model calculation of nightside ionosphere of Venus: Ionic composition
S.A. Haider, Indian J. Radio and Space Physics, 17, 183-195 (1988).

51. Some molecular nitrogen emission from Titan-Solar EUV interaction
S.A. Haider, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 8998-9000 (1986).

52. Analytical approach to backscattering of low energy electrons
S.A. Haider and R.P. Singhal, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 13761 (1986).

53. Photoelectron excitation of H2 due to solar EUV interaction in the Jovian atmosphere
S.A. Haider, R. Shanker and O.N. Singh, Indian J. Radio and Space Physics, 15, 6 (1986).

54. Some molecular nitrogen emission from Titan solar EUV and magnetospheric interaction
R.P. Singhal and S.A. Haider, Indian J. Radio and Space Physics, 15, 46-56 (1986).

55. Analytical yield spectrum approach to photoelectron fluxes in Earth's atmosphere
R.P. Singhal and S.A. Haider, J. Geophys. Res., 89 ,6847-6852 (1984).

56. Analytical yield spectrum approach to electron energy degradation in Earth's atmosphere
S.A. Haider and R.P. Singhal, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 7185-7189 (1983).

57. Electron loss cross sections for He+ and He incident on N2 and O
S.A. Haider and R.P.Singhal, Physica c, 121C, 437-440 (1983).

58. Optical emission on the nightside ionosphere of Venus
R.P. Singhal and S.A. Haider, Indian J. Radio and Space Physics, 11, 15-19 (1982).

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Conferences/Publications/Proceedings

59. Solar X-ray emission estimated during Chandrayaan-1 for X-ray Fluorescence from moon
K. B. Smart, S. A. Haider and N. Bhandari, proceedings in 13th National Space Science Symposium to be held at Mahatma Gandhi University from 17-20 February, 2004.

60. Chemistry of ions ≤ 40 amu in the inner coma of comet Halley
Anil Bhardwaj and S. A. Haider, proceedings in 13th National Space Science Symposium to be held at Mahatma Gandhi University from 17-20 February, 2004.

61. Role of Solar EUV and Solar wind interaction with the atmosphere of Mars
S. A. Haider, proceedings in 13th National Space Science Symposium to be held at Mahatma Gandhi University from 17-20 February, 2004.

62. Longitidinal structures in the upper atmosphere of Mars at low latitude
S. P. seth and S. A. Haider, proceedings in 13th National Space Science Symposium to be held at Mahatma Gandhi University from 17-20 February, 2004.

63. Chemistry of the lower ionosphere of Mars: Ion composition
Vikas Singh and S. A. Haider, proceedings in 13th National Space Science Symposium to be held at Mahatma Gandhi University from 17-20 February, 2004.

64. Chemistry of O(1D) atoms in coma: implications for cometary mission
A.Bhardwaj and S.A. Haider, Adv. Space Res. 29(5), 745-749 (2002).

65. Nightglow emissions of 5577Å and 6300 Å due to solar wind electron precipitation in Martian atmosphere
S.P.Seth and S.A.Haider. proceedings in 12th National Space Science Symposium, Bhopal (India), Feb. 25-28 (2002).

66. Solar wind absorption into Martian atmosphere
S.A.Haider, proceedings in 12th National Space Science Symposium, Bhopal (India), Feb. 25-28 (2002).

67. Modeling of metastable carbon atoms in comets : implications for ROSETTA
A. Bhardwaj and S.A. Haider, Advances in Space Research, 23(7), 1325-1341 (1999).

68. Chemistry of the ions ≤ 40 amu in the inner coma of comet Halley
S.A. Haider and A. Bhardwaj, Advance in Space Research, 20, 291-297 (1997).

69. Effect of ion heating on the plasma transport at polar latitudes of Mars
S.A. Haider, Advance in Space Research, 20, 177-182 (1997).

70. Nightglow limb intensities of 5577Å and 6300Å in the Martian atmosphere
S.A.Haider, prceedings in 10 th National Space Science Symposium, Ahmedabad (India), Nov. 25-28 (1997).

71. Solar cycle variation of electron densities in the dayside ionosphere of Mars
K.S.Raina and S.A.Haider, proceedings in 10th National Space Science Symposium, Ahmedabad (India), Nov. 25-28, 195 (1997).

72. O+ escape in the polar ion exosphere of Mars
S.A. Haider, Advance in Space Research, 16, 6, 49-54 (1995).

73. Consequences of cometary aurora on the carbon chemistry at comet Halley
A. Bhardwaj, S.A. Haider, R.P. Singhal, Advance in Space Research, 16, 2, 31-36 (1995).

74. A comparative study of nighttime ionosphere of Mars and Venus during solar minimum condition
S.A. Haider, Proceedings in National Space Science Symposium, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India), March 11-14, PLM 16, 372 (1992).

75. A comparative study of daytime and nighttime ionosphere of Mars
S.A. Haider, Proceedings in 29th COSPAR, Washington D.C. (USA), 28 August - 5 September, C1.5, 376 (1992).

76. Analytical yield spectrum approach to backscattering of low energy electrons in the Earth's atmosphere
S.A. Haider, Proceedings in Annals Geophysicae, XV General Assembly, Copenhagen (Denmark), April 23-27, 279 (1990).

77. Detailed study of photoelectron fluxes in cometary ionosphere
A. Bhardwaj, S.A. Haider and R.P. Singhal, Proceedings in 76th session of Indian Science Congress, Madurai (India), Part IV, 31 (1989).

78. Auroral emissions due to magnetospheric electron interaction in cometary ionosphere
S.A. Haider, A. Bhardwaj and R.P. Singhal, Proceedings in 76th session of Indian Science Congress, Madurai (India), Part IV, 32 (1989).

79. Auroral emission using analytical yield spectrum approach
S.A. Haider, Proceedings in International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), Vancouver (Canada), Vol. 2, 528, August 9-22 (1987).

80. Analytical yield spectrum approach of photoelectron fluxes in the J ovian atmosphere
O.N. Singh, R. Shankar and S.A. Haider, Proceedings in National Space Science Symposium, Gauhati University, Assam (India), Vol. 29 H, 444, Feb. 19-22 (1986).



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Popular Articles on Planetary Sciences

1. Atmospheres of inner planets
S.A. Haider, Physics education, 12, 125 (1995).

2. Planetary atmospheric studies
S.A. Haider and R.P. Singhal, Advances in Space Research in India, ed. R.K. Varma, Diamond Jubilee publications, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, 69-98 (1994).



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Books

1. S.A. Haider, Varun Sheel and Shyam Lal (2010)
Modeling of Planetary atmosphere
Published by Macmillan India Ltd., Page 1-361


2. Y. Kasaba, G.M. Caro, T. Ito, P. Hartogh, C.Y. Robert and S.A. Haider (2010)
Advances in Geosciences
Published by World Scientific Company, Singapore, 19, Page 1-680




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Scientific Reports

1. Ionization and airglow in Martian atmosphere
S.A. Haider, Scientific report published by Indian Space Research Organisation Technical Report No: ISRO-PPRL-TR-100-99, Page 1-67, December 1999.

2. Longitudinal distributions of photoelectron spectra, production rates and densities at low latitude of Mars: comparison with accelerometer and radio measurements
S.A. Haider, ISAS Research Note 755, published by Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan, page.1-33, 2003.



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Books Chapters

1. R.V. Ready, A.C. Das and S.A. Haider (2010)
Magnetic fields and solar wind interaction with Planetary atmospheres
Edited by S.A. Haider, Varusheel and Shyam Lal,
Published by Macmillan India Ltd., Cahpter 3, Page 145-200


2. Varun Sheel, S.A. Haider, V. Singh, W.C. Magaire and G. J. Molina-Cuberos (2008)
Zonal Variability of neutral density, temperature, and ion production rate in the Martian troposphere
Published by Advances in Geosciences,19, Planetary Science, Chapter-5, Page 225-235


3. S.A. Haider, Varun Sheel,V. Singh, W.C. Magaire and G. J. Molina-Cuberos (2008)
Longitidinal distribution of the datside ionosphere of Mars at high latitude
Published by Advances in Geosciences,15, Planetary Science, Chapter-3, Page 1-27


4. S.A. Haider(2008)
Upper ionosphere of Mars during solar quiet and disturbed conditions in Planetary Exploration and Science: Recent result and advances
Edited by Shuanggen Jin, Nader Haghighipour and Wing-Huen IP
Published by Springer, Heidelberg, New York,Dordrecht, London, Chapter-7, Page 119-146




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Organisation of Conferences/Summer Schools, etc.


1. Organized a brainstorming session on “Vision & exploration for planetary sciences in decades 2020-2060” at Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad, 8-10 November, 2017

2. Organized 18 Scientific sessions on science and exploration of minor bodies, planets and their environments as a Planetary Science President of AOGS during 28 July-1 August, 2014 in Sapporo, Japan

3. Organized 16 Scientific Sessions on different topics of Planetary Sciences as a Planetary Science President of AOGS during 24-28 June, 2013 in Brisbane, Australia

4. Organized an international symposium on “Atmospheres of terrestrial planets: Observations and modeling at Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, 23-24 July, 2012

5. Organized a symposium on “Science and exploration of Mars and Venus”, 8th Asia Oceanic Geosciences Society (AOGS) meeting held in Taiwan, 8-12 August, 2011

6. Organized a symposium on “Science and exploration of Mars and Venus”, 7th Asia Oceanic Geosciences Society (AOGS) meeting held in Hyderabad, India, 5-9 July, 2010

7. Organized an international workshop on “Advances in planetary atmospheres and exploration” at Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, 12-13 July, 2010

8. Organized a symposium on “Science and exploration of Mars”, 6th Asia Oceanic Geosciences Society (AOGS) meeting held in Singapore, 11-15 August, 2009

9. Organized a symposium on “Science and exploration of Mars”, 5th Asia Oceanic Geosciences Society (AOGS) meeting held in Busan, Korea 16-20 June, 2008

10. Organized a winter school on “Modeling of planetary atmospheres” at Physical Research Laboratory during December 18, 2006-January 6, 2007

11. Organized a symposium on “Science and exploration on Venus and Mars”, 4th Asia Oceanic Geosciences Society (AOGS) meeting held in Singapore, July 31-August 4, 2007

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Collaborations


1. M.A. Abdu

Present Address:
Aeronomy Division, Institute of Nacional de Pesquisas, Espaciais, Saojose dos Campos, Brazil


2. Inez Batista

Aeronomy Division, Institute of Nacional de Pesquisas, Espaciais, Saojose dos Campos, Brazil


3. Prof. S. W. Bougher

Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.


4. Prof. Esa Kallio

Finish Meteorological Institute, Geophysical Research, P.O. Box 503, Fin 00101, Helsinki, FINLAND.


5. Prof. M. I. Verigin

Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, RUSSIA.

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